Abstract Wash Problem (9/2/91)


Notes to the Test Proctor:

Instructions to the subjects: Please read the italicized portions of the instructions word for word to the subjects.

Here are two examples. Look at example 1a. Here is what a man has, a cloth umbrella. Here is what happens to him, he gets wet. Now, here is what a man has, a plastic umbrella. Here is what happens to him, he stays dry. Look at example 1b. When the man has a cloth umbrella, is the man wet or dry? Answer the question to yourself.

Give the subjects some time to think over and answer the example problem.

The answer is that the man with the cloth umbrella gets wet. Are there any questions?

Answer the questions about causality relationships in 1a and 1b, but remember not to answer questions about causality relationships in the more complex examples, 1c and 2.

Now, look at example 1c. Look at all the things that the man has. Will he get wet or stay dry? Answer the question to yourself.

Ask again if there are any questions. Feel free to go around and give individual help.

Now look at example 2. In this example, different cleaners are used to try to remove a stain. Bleaches, soaps, boosters, and water may be used to try and remove the stain.

Encourage the subjects to ask questions about the set-up example 2 or any other questions they have before the test begins. Test proctors can individually go through the example instructions again, but they should not give the subjects the answer to the example problems 1c as this will interfere with the efficacy of the testing instrument. Proctors may answer questions on the relationships of causality in 1a or 1b, but not on the relationships of causality in examples 1c and

Here are two examples. You will answer the questions like them.

Here is an example of what happens when it rains.

1a.

Now this is what the man has This is what happens.
Cloth Umbrella ---> Wet

1b.

Now this is what the man has This is what happens.
Plastic Umbrella ---> Dry



1c.

Now this is what the man has Circle what happens.


Cloth Umbrella


--->
Wet
Dry



2a.

Now this is what the man has This is what happens.
B Bleach Blue Booster ---> Clean



2b.

Now this is what the man has This is what happens.
A Bleach Blue Booster ---> Clean

2c.

Now this is what the man has This is what happens.
B Bleach Pink Booster ---> Dirty



2c.

Now this is what the man has Circle what happens.
A Bleach Pink Booster

--->
Clean
Dirty








1. A cloth was stained with red lipstick. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Liquid Soap Cold Water ---> Dirty
Powder Soap Hot Water ---> Clean
Liquid Soap Hot Water ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.

Powder Soap Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty



2. A cloth was stained with orange juice. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Liquid Soap A Bleach ---> Clean
Powder Soap B Bleach ---> Dirty
Liquid Soap B Bleach ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.

Powder Soap A Bleach

--->
Clean
Dirty



3. A cloth was stained with avocado. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Hot Water Blue Booster ---> Dirty
Cold Water Pink Booster ---> Clean
Cold Water Blue Booster ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. Now, mark the correct answer.



Hot Water


Pink Booster


--->
Clean
Dirty



4. A cloth was stained with shoe polish. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Cold Water A Bleach ---> Dirty
Hot Water A Bleach ---> Clean
Hot Water B Bleach ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



Cold Water


B Bleach


--->
Clean
Dirty



5. A cloth was stained with coffee. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Powder Soap A Bleach ---> Clean
Powder Soap B Bleach ---> Clean


Liquid Soap


A Bleach


--->


Dirty



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



Liquid Soap


B Bleach


--->
Clean
Dirty



6. A cloth was stained with rust. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

A Bleach Hot Water ---> Dirty
B Bleach Hot Water ---> Clean
B Bleach Cold Water ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



A Bleach


Cold Water


--->
Clean
Dirty



7. A cloth was stained with raspberry. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

B Bleach Hot Water ---> Dirty
B Bleach Cold Water ---> Clean
A Bleach Hot Water ---> Dirty







Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



A Bleach


Cold Water


--->
Clean
Dirty



8. A cloth was stained with toothpaste. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Liquid Soap Cold Water ---> Clean
Powder Soap Cold Water ---> Dirty
Powder Soap Hot Water ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.

Liquid Soap Hot Water

--->
Clean
Dirty



9. A cloth was stained with grease. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Cold Water Liquid Soap ---> Dirty
Hot Water Powder Soap ---> Clean
Cold Water Powder Soap ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



Hot Water


Liquid Soap


--->
Clean
Dirty



10. A cloth was stained with honey. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

B Bleach Hot Water ---> Clean
B Bleach Cold Water ---> Dirty
A Bleach Hot Water ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



A Bleach


Cold Water


--->
Clean
Dirty



11. A cloth was stained with gravy. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Cold Water B Bleach ---> Clean
Cold Water A Bleach ---> Dirty


Hot Water


A Bleach


--->


Dirty



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



Hot Water


B Bleach


--->
Clean
Dirty



12. A cloth was stained with tea. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Powder Soap A Bleach ---> Clean
Liquid Soap B Bleach ---> Dirty
Powder Soap B Bleach ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



Liquid Soap


A Bleach


--->
Clean
Dirty



13. A cloth was stained with applesauce. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Liquid Soap Pink Booster ---> Dirty
Powder Soap Pink Booster ---> Dirty
Powder Soap Blue Booster ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.

Liquid Soap Blue Booster

--->
Clean
Dirty



14. A cloth was stained with grass. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Pink Booster Cold Water ---> Dirty
Pink Booster Hot Water ---> Dirty
Blue Booster Hot Water ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



Blue Booster


Cold Water


--->
Clean
Dirty



15. A cloth was stained with BBQ sauce. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Hot Water A Bleach ---> Dirty
Cold Water B Bleach ---> Clean
Cold Water A Bleach ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.

Hot Water

B Bleach



--->
Clean
Dirty



16. A cloth was stained with mud. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Pink Booster A Bleach ---> Dirty
Blue Booster A Bleach ---> Dirty
Pink Booster B Bleach ---> Clean







Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



Blue Booster


B Bleach


--->
Clean
Dirty



17. A cloth was stained with purple crayon. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Liquid Soap B Bleach ---> Clean
Powder Soap A Bleach ---> Dirty
Liquid Soap A Bleach ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



Powder Soap


B Bleach


--->
Clean
Dirty



18. A cloth was stained with mustard. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

A Bleach Hot Water ---> Clean
B Bleach Hot Water ---> Clean
A Bleach Cold Water ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer.



B Bleach


Cold Water


--->
Clean
Dirty



19. A cloth was stained with blueberry. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Pink Booster Powder Soap ---> Clean
Blue Booster Liquid Soap ---> Dirty
Pink Booster Liquid Soap ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer..

Blue Booster

Powder Soap



--->
Clean
Dirty



20. A cloth was stained with chocolate. Here are three ways it can be washed. Sometimes the cloth will be clean. Sometimes it will be dirty.

Hot Water B Bleach ---> Clean
Cold Water B Bleach ---> Clean
Cold Water A Bleach ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. Now, circle the correct answer..



Cold Water


A Bleach


--->
Clean
Dirty