Concrete Wash Problem (Revised 9/1/91)




Notes to Test Proctor:

Instructions to the Subjects: Please read the italicized portions of the instructions word for word to the subjects.

Here are two examples. Look at example 1a. Here is what a man has, a cloth umbrella. Here is what happens to him, he gets wet. Now, here is what a man has, a plastic umbrella. Here is what happens to him, he stays dry. Look at example 1b. When the man has a cloth umbrella, is the man wet or dry? Answer the question to yourself.

Give the subjects some time to think over and answer the example problem.

The answer is that the man with the cloth umbrella gets wet. Are there any questions?

Answer questions about causality relationships in 1a and 1b, but remember not to answer questions about causality relationships in the more complex example 2. Walk around the room encouraging the subjects to ask questions.

Now, look at example 2. In this example, different cleaners are used to try to remove a stain. Bleach brand A or bleach brand B is used. Liquid soap or powder soap is used. Pink booster or blue booster is used. Hot water or cold water is used.

Encourage the subjects to ask questions about the set-up of example 2 or any other questions they have before the test begins. Test proctors can individually go through the example instructions again. Proctors may answer questions on the relationships of causality in 1a and 1b, but not on the relationships of causality in example 2 as it will interfere with the efficacy of the testing instrument.




Here are examples. You will answer questions like them.

1a. Here is an example of what happens when it rains.

This is what This is what
the man has. happens.
Cloth Umbrella ---> Wet

1b.

This is what This is what
the man has. happens.



Plastic Umbrella ---> Dry



Now, circle your answer.

Cloth Umbrella ---> Wet
Dry



This next example is about a dirty cloth. The cloth was washed in these things: This is how the cloth came out:
B Bleach Powder Soap Hot Water Pink Booster ---> Dirty



Then another piece of cloth with the same kind of stain was washed in these things: This is how the cloth came out:
A Bleach Powder Soap Cold Water Blue Booster ---> Clean




Directions: Read the six examples. Each example tells what was done to the cloth and how it turned out. Circle the answer to the questions that follow the examples.

1. A cloth was stained with red lipstick. Here are six ways it can be washed. Sometimes it will be clean after being washed and sometimes it will be dirty.

A Bleach Powder Soap Blue Booster Cold Water ---> Dirty
B Bleach Liquid Soap Pink Booster Hot Water ---> Clean
A Bleach Powder Soap Pink Booster Hot Water ---> Dirty
B Bleach Powder Soap Pink Booster Cold Water ---> Dirty
A Bleach Liquid Soap Blue Booster Hot Water ---> Clean
B Bleach Powder Soap Blue Booster Cold Water ---> Clean






Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

B Bleach

Liquid Soap

Pink Booster

Hot Water



--->
Clean
Dirty

A Bleach

Powder Soap

Blue Booster

Cold Water



--->
Clean
Dirty

B Bleach

Powder Soap

Blue Booster

Cold Water



--->
Clean
Dirty

A Bleach

Liquid Soap

Blue Booster

Hot Water

--->

Clean
Dirty


A Bleach


Powder Soap


Pink Booster


Hot Water


--->
Clean
Dirty


B Bleach


Powder Soap


Pink Booster


Cold Water


--->
Clean
Dirty




2. A cloth was stained with orange juice. Here are six ways it can be washed. Sometimes it will be clean after being washed and sometimes it will be dirty.

Liquid Soap Pink Booster Hot Water B Bleach ---> Clean
Powder Soap Pink Booster Cold Water A Bleach ---> Clean
Liquid Soap Blue Booster Hot Water A Bleach ---> Dirty
Powder Soap Pink Booster Hot Water A Bleach ---> Dirty
Powder Soap Blue Booster Cold Water A Bleach ---> Dirty
Liquid Soap Blue Booster Cold Water B Bleach ---> Clean




Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Powder Soap Blue Booster Cold Water A Bleach

--->
Clean
Dirty
Liquid Soap Blue Booster Hot Water A Bleach

--->
Clean
Dirty
Liquid Soap Pink Booster Hot Water B Bleach

--->
Clean
Dirty
Powder Soap Pink Booster Cold Water A Bleach

--->
Clean
Dirty
Liquid Soap Blue Booster Cold Water B Bleach

--->
Clean
Dirty
Powder Soap Pink Booster Hot Water A Bleach

--->
Clean
Dirty






3. A cloth was stained with avocado. Here are six ways it can be washed. Sometimes it will be clean after being washed and sometimes it will be dirty.

Hot Water A Bleach Liquid Soap Blue Booster ---> Dirty
Cold Water B Bleach Powder Soap Blue Booster ---> Clean
Hot Water B Bleach Liquid Soap Pink Booster ---> Clean
Cold Water A Bleach Powder Soap Blue Booster ---> Dirty
Cold Water B Bleach Liquid Soap Blue Booster ---> Dirty
Hot Water A Bleach Powder Soap Pink Booster ---> Clean




Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.



Hot Water


A Bleach


Powder Soap


Pink Booster


--->
Clean
Dirty


Cold Water


B Bleach


Powder Soap


Blue Booster


--->
Clean
Dirty


Hot Water


B Bleach


Liquid Soap


Pink Booster


--->
Clean
Dirty
Cold Water B Bleach Liquid Soap Blue Booster

--->
Clean
Dirty
Cold Water A Bleach Powder Soap Blue Booster

--->
Clean
Dirty
Hot Water A Bleach Liquid Soap Blue Booster

--->
Clean
Dirty