Primary Wash Problem (9/1/91)


Notes to Test Proctor

Instructions: Please read the italicized portions of the instructions word for word to the subjects.

Here are two examples. Look at example 1a. Here is what a man has, a cloth umbrella. Here is what happens to him, he gets wet. Why did the rain get the man wet? Answer the question to yourself.

Give the subjects some time to think over and answer the example problem.

The answer is that the man had a cloth umbrella. Are there any questions?

Answer questions about causality relationships in example 1a, but remember not to answer questions about causality relationships in the more complex examples, 1b and 1c.

Now, look at example 1b. Now, here is what a man has, a plastic umbrella. Here is what happens to him, he stays dry. Look at example 1c. When the man has a cloth umbrella, is the man wet or dry? Answer the question to yourself.

Before beginning the test, encourage the subjects to ask questions. Test proctors can individually go through the example instructions again, but they should not give the subjects the answer to the example problem as this will interfere with the efficacy of the testing instrument. Proctors may answer questions on the relationships of causality in 1a and 1b, but not on the relationships of causality in 1c.



Here are examples. You will answer questions like them.

1a. Here is an example of what happens when it rains.

This is what This is what
the man has. happens.
Cloth Umbrella ---> Wet

1b. Why did the rain get the man wet?

This is what This is what
the man has. happens.
Cloth Umbrella ---> Wet

1c.

Plastic Umbrella ---> Dry



Now, circle the correct answer.



Cloth Umbrella


--->
Wet
Dry






1. Two cloths were stained with red lipstick. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples:


Hot Water

--->

Clean
Cold Water ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty
Hot Water ---> Clean
Dirty




2. Two cloths were stained with orange juice. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples:


Hot Water

--->

Dirty
Cold Water ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty
Hot Water ---> Clean
Dirty




3. Two cloths were stained with avocado. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Hot Water ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Hot Water ---> Clean
Dirty
Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty




4. Two cloths were stained with blood. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples.

Cold Water ---> Dirty
Hot Water ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Hot Water ---> Clean
Dirty
Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty




5. Two cloths were stained with shoe polish. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples.

Hot Water ---> Dirty
Cold Water ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty


Hot Water
---> Clean
Dirty




6. Two cloths were stained with coffee. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples.



Hot Water


--->


Clean
Cold Water ---> Dirty





Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty

Hot Water
---> Clean
Dirty




7. Two cloths were stained with rust. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples.

Cold Water ---> Dirty
Hot Water ---> Clean



Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty
Hot Water ---> Clean
Dirty




8. Two cloths were stained with ketchup. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Hot Water ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty
Hot Water ---> Clean
Dirty




9. Two cloths were stained with raspberry. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Hot Water ---> Dirty



Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty
Hot Water ---> Clean
Dirty




10. Two cloths were stained with toothpaste. They were washed. One came out clean. The other cloth came out dirty.

Here are two examples.

Hot Water ---> Dirty

Cold Water
---> Clean



Look back at the examples. After being washed, will the cloth be clean or dirty? Circle the answer.

Cold Water ---> Clean
Dirty
Hot Water ---> Clean
Dirty