Research

Model of Hierarchical Complexity and Stage

Commons, M. L., Ross, S. N., Miller, P. M., Richardson, A. M., Crone-Todd, D., & Miller, J. G. (2015). Applying the Model of Hierarchical Complexity to Scoring Moral Narratives and Constructing Instruments to Measure Moral Development. Conference Workshop.

Commons, M. L., Li, E. Y., Richardson, A. M., Gane-McCalla, R., Barker, C. D., & Tuladhar, C. T. (2014). Does the Model of Hierarchical Complexity Produce Significant Gaps between Orders and Are the Orders Equally Spaced? Journal of Applied Measurement, 15, 1-29.

Comons, M. L., Crone-Todd, & Chen, S. J. (2014). Using SAFMEDS and direct instruction to teach the model of hierarchical complexity. The Behavior Analyst Today, 14, 31-45.

Commons, M. L., Ross, S. N., & Bresette, L. M. (2011). The Connection Among Postformal Thought, Stage Transition, Persistence, and Ambition and Major Scientific Innovations. In C. Hoare (Ed.). Oxford handbook of adult development and learning. (pp 287-301). New York: Oxford, 2nd edition.

Commons-Miller, L. A. H. (2011). How a Future Species of Superion Hominids Might Negotiate to Promote the Survival of Homo Sapiens: An Application of the Model of Hierarchical Complexity. Behavioral Developmental Bulletin, 11, 32-37.

Commons-Miller, L. A. H. (2010). Review of Michael Horace Barnes, Stages of Thought. Science and religion through history as seen through the lens of stage. Integral Leadership Review, 10.

Commons, M. L., Ross, S. N., & Miller, J. G. (2010). Why Postformal Stages of Development are not Formal, but Postformal. Integral World, 1-13.

Commons, M. L. (2009). Further issues in stage metrics. Integral Review, 5, 315-323.

Commons, M. L., Goodheart, E. A., Pekker, A., Dawson, T. L., Draney, K., & Adams, K. M. (2008). Using rasch scaled stage scores to validate orders of hierarchical complexity of balance beam task sequences, Journal of Applied Measurement, 9, 182-199.

Commons, M. L., (2007). Introduction to the Model of Hierarchical Complexity. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 13, 1-4.

Commons, M. L. Galaz-Fontes, J. F. & Morse, S. J. (2006). Leadership, Cross-Cultural Contact, Socio-Economic Status, and Formal Operational Reasoning about Moral Dilemmas among Mexican Non-Literate Adults and High School Students. Journal of Moral Education, 35, 247-267.

Commons, M. L., & Bresette, L. M. (2006). Illuminating Major Creative Innovators with the Model of Hierarchical Complexity

Commons, M. L., Locicero, A., Ross, S. Miller, P. M. (200#). Hierarchical Complexity Scoring System (HCSS) Applied to the Issues of Understanding Terrorism and Successfully Dealing with It

Commons, M. L., Miller, P. M., Goodheart, E. A., & Danaher-Gilpin, D. (2005). Hierarchical Complexity Scoring System: How to Score Anything (also available in HTML)

Commons, M. L., & Pekker, A. (2004). Hierarchical Complexity: A Formal Theory.

Commons, M. L., & Richards, F. A. (2002). Organizing Components into Combinations: How Stage Transition Works.

Commons, M. L., Goodheart, E. A., Bresette, L. M., Bauer, N. F., Farrell, E. W., McCarthy, K. G., Danaher, D. L., Richards, F. A., Ellis, J. B., O'Brien, A. M., Rodriguez, J. A., & Schraeder, D. S. (1995). Formal, Systematic, and Metasystematic Operations with a Balance-Beam Task Series: A Reply to Kallio's Claim of no Distinct Systematic Stage

Marchand, H. (2002). Some Reflections on Postformal Thought

Commons, M. L., & Miller, P. M. (200#). Development of Behavioral Stages in Animals

Commons, M. L., & White, M. S. (2003). A Complete Theory of Tests for a Theory of Mind Must Consider Hierarchical Complexity and Stage

Commons, M. L., Trudeau, E. J., Stein, S. A., Richards, F. A., & Krause, S. R. (1998). Hierarchical Complexity of Tasks Shows the Existence of Developmental Stages

Irwin, R. R., Commons, M. L., & Funk, J. (2002)Review: Human Development and the Spiritual Life: How Consciousness Grows toward Transformation.

Commons, M. L., & Richards, F. A. (2002)Four Postformal Stages.

Commons, M. L., & Miller, P. M. (2002). A Complete Theory of Human Evolution of Intelligence Must Consider Stage Changes

Commons, M. L. (2002). Introduction: Attaining a New Stage

Commons, M. L., Richards, F. A., & Kuhn, D. (1982). Systematic and Metasystematic Reasoning: A Case for Levels of Reasoning Beyond Piaget's Stage of Formal Operations

Commons, M. L., Miller, P. M., & Kuhn, D. (1982). The Relation Between Formal Operational Reasoning and Academic Course Selection and Performance Among College Freshmen and Sophomores

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Stage and Politics

LaLlave, J. (2005). The Acceptability of Arguments in Favour of and Against the Iraq War, Conflict & Communication Online, 4, 1-16.

Commons, M. L., & Rodriguez, J. A. (1990). "Equal Access" without "Establishing" Religion: The Necessity for Assessing Social Perspective-Taking Skills and Institutional Atmosphere

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Moral Developmental Stage

Burgess, A. W., Commons, M. L., Safarik, M. E., Looper, R. R., & Ross, S. N. (2007). Sex offenders of the elderly: Classification by motive, typology, and predictors of severity of crime. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12(15), 582-597.

Commons, M. L., & Funk J. (2002). Review: Human Development and the Spiritual Life: How Consciousness Grows toward Transformation

Sonnert, G., & Commons, M. L. (1994). Society and the Highest Stages of Moral Development

Commons, M. L., & Wolfsont, C. A. (2002). A Complete Theory of Empathy Must Consider Stage Changes

Commons, M. L. (200#). Stress, Consoling, and Attachment Interviews

Commons, M. L., Lee, P., Gutheil, T. G., Rubin, E., Goldman, M., & Appelbaum P. S. (1995). Moral State of Reasoning and the Misperceived "Duty" to Report Past Crimes (Misprision)

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Stage and Professional Decision Making

Gortz, D. P., & Commons, M. L. (2015). The stage-value model: Implications for the changing standards of care. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 42-43, 134-143.

Commons, M. L., & Robinett, T. L. (Spring, 2013). Adult development: Predicting learning success. Training Industry Quarterly.

Gutheil, T. G., Commons, M. L., Drogin, E. Y., Hauser, M. J., Miller, P. M., Richardson, A. M. (2012). Do forensic practitioners distinguish between testifying and consulting experts? A pilot study. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 35, 452-455

Miller, P. M., Bener, A., Ghuloum, S., Commons, M. L., & Burgut, F. T. (2012). Differences and similarities in cross-cultural perceptions of boundaries: A comparison of results from two studies. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 35, 398-405.

Commons, M. L., Miller, P. M., Li, E. Y., & Gutheil, T. G. (2012). Forensic experts' perceptions of expert bias. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 35, 362-371.

Drogin, E. Y., Commons, M. L., Gutheil, T. G., Meyer, D. J., & Norris, D. M. (2012). "Certainty" and expert mental health opinions in legal proceedings. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 35, 348-353.

Gutheil, T. G., Miller, P. M., & Commons, M. L. (2011). Attorney preparedness as judged by experts: An empirical pilot study. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 39, 397-409.

Gutheil, T. G., Miller, P. M., & Commons, M. L. (2011). Expert professionalism as judged by experts: An empirical pilot study. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 39, 411-424.

Commons, M. L., & Miller, P. M. (2011). Folk psychology and the law: Why we need to replace folk psychology with behavioral science. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 39, 493-516.

Ghuloum, S., Bener, A., Commons, M. L., Miller, P. M., Burgut, F. T., & Bhugra, D. (2011). Perceptions of boundaries and cultural influences in Qatar. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 0, 1-8.

Norris, D. M., Commons, M. L., Miller, P. M., Adams, K. M., & Gutheil, M. D. (2011). A pilot study of job satisfaction in Massachusetts judges. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 39, 321-337.

Spruiell, G. L., Hauser, M. J., Commons, M. L., Drogin, E. Y. (2011). Clinicians Imagine a Patient's View: Rating Disclosures of Confidential Information. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 39, 379-386.

Commons, M.L., Gutheil, T. G., & Hillard, J. T. (2010). On humanizing the expert witness: A proposed narrative approach to expert witness qualification. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 38, 32-34.

Commons, M. L., & Miller, P. M. (2007). Folk psychology and the law: Why behavior science needs to replace folk psychology. Revista Brasileira de Estudos Polítcos, 96, 7-30.

Commons, M. L., (2007). Bringing about changes in workplace behavior. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 13, 35-42.

Dattilio, F. M., Commons, M. L., Adams, K. M., Gutheil, T. G., Sadoff, R. L. (2006). A pilot Rasch Scaling of lawyers' perceptions of expert bias. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 34, 482-491.

Commons, M. L., Rodriguez, J. A., Adams, K. M., Goodheart, E. A., Gutheil, T. G., Cyr, E. D. (2006). Informed Consent: Do You Know It When You See It? Evaluating the Adequacy of Patient Consent and the Value of a Lawsuit. Psychiatric Annals, 36, 430-435.

Commons, M. L., Miller, P. M., & Gutheil, T. G. (2004). Expert Witness Perceptions of Bias in Experts

Gutheil, T. G., Commons, M. L., Miller, P. M., & LaLlave, J. (2000). "Telling Tales Out of Court": A Pilot Study of Experts' Disclosures About Opposing Experts.

Gutheil, T. G., Slater, F. E., Commons, M. L., & Goodheart, E. A. (1998). Expert Witness Travel Dilemmas: A Pilot Study of Billing Practices

Commons, M. L. (2000). The Power Therapies: A Proposed Mechanism for Their Action and Suggestions for Future Empirical Validation

Miller, P. M., Commons, M. L., & Gutheil, T. G. (2006). Clinicans' Perceptions of Boundaries in Brazil and the United States

Strasburger, L. H., Miller, P. M., Commons, M. L., Gutheil, T. G., & LaLlave, J. (2003). Stress and the Forensic Psychiatrist: A Pilot Study

Commons, M. L., Bohn, J. T., Godon, L. T., Hauser, M. J., & Gutheil, T. G. (1992). Professionals' Attitudes Towards Sex Between Institutionalized Patients

Kearney, A. J., Gutheil, T. G., & Commons, M. L. (1996). Trading Forensic and Family Commitments

Commons, M.L., Krause, S.R., Fayer, G.A., & Meaney, M. (1993). Atmosphere and stage development in the workplace. In J. Demick & P.M. Miller (Eds.). Development in the workplace (pp. 199–220). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc

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Quantitative Analyses of Behavior

Commons, M. L., & Pekker, A. (under review). A New Discounting Model of Reinforcement

Commons, M. L. (2012). Celeration of Publication Frequency.

Commons, M. L., & Hallinan, P. W. (2010). Intelligent pattern recognition: Hierarchical organization of concepts

Commons, M. L., Bing, E. W., Griffy, C. C., & Trudeau, E. J. (2010). Models of acquisition and preference

Commons, M. L. (2006). Measuring an Approximate g in Animals and People. Integral Review, 3, 82-99.

Commons, M. L. (1998). A quantitative behavior-analytic theory of development. Mexican Jouranl of Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 24, 153-180.

Commons, M. L., Woodford, M., & Trudeau, E. J. (1991). How Each Reinforcer Contributes to Value: "Noise" Must Reduce Reinforcer Value Hypberbolically.

Commons, M. L., & Miller, P. M. (2001). A Quantitative Behavioral Model of Developmental Stage Based upon Hierarchical Complexity Theory

Commons, M. L., & Millier, P. M. (1997) A proposal for correcting serious flaws in current theories of intelligence. Review of: A Theory of Conceptual Intelligence: Thinking, Learning, Creativity and Giftedness Rex Li, 1996, Praeger Publishing

Commons, M. L., & Rodriguez, J. A. (1993). The development of hierarchically complex equivalence classes. Psychological Record, 43, 667-697.

Commons, M. L., Woodford, M., & Ducheny, J. R. (1982). How Reinforcers are Aggregated in Reinforcement-Density Discrimination and Preference Experiments

Commons, M. L. (1981). How Reinforcement Density is Discriminated and Scaled

Commons, M. L. (1979). Decision Rules and Signal Detectability in a Reinforcement-density Discrimination

Commons, M. L. (1979). Decision rules and signal detectability in a reinforcement-density discrimination. Journal of Experimental Analyses of Behavior, 32, 101-120.

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History and Philosophy

Commons, M. L., & Goodman, S. A. (2008). Project Giant Step: Ocean Hill-Brownsville and the New York City School Strike. Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, 24, 38-42.

Commons, M. L. (2000) . The Beginnings of the Free Speech Movement Within Slate

Commons, M. L. (2001). The Notion of Events and Three Ways of Knowing: Problems with Mentalistic Explanations, Freewill, Self, Soul, and Intrinsic Motivation .

Commons, M. L. (2001). A Short History of the Society for Quantitative Analyses of Behavior

Commons, M. L., & Goodheart, E. A. (1999). The origins of behaviorism. In The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism. (Ed.) Bruce A. Thyer.

Developmental

Miller, P. M., & Commons, M. L. (2013a). Why not "crying it out" Part 1: The science that tells us that responsiveness is key. Clinical Lactation, 4, 57-61.

Miller, P. M., & Commons, M. L. (2013b). Why not "crying it out": part 2: can certain infant care practices cause excessive stress?. Clinical Lactation, 4, 62-65.

Miller, P. M., & Commons, M. L. (2010). The Benefits of Attachment Parenting for Infants and Children: A Behavioral Developmental View, Behavioral, Developmental Bulletin, 10, 1-14.

Dawson, T. L., Goodhear, E. A., Draney, K., Wilson, M., Commons, M. L. (2010). Concrete, abstract, formal, and systematic operations as observed in a "piagetian" balance-beam, task series. Journal of Applied Measurement, 11, 11-23.

Bernholt, S., Parchmann, lka, & Commons, M. L. (2009). Kompetenzmodellierung zwischen Forschung und Unterrichtspraxis. Zeitschrift fur Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften, 15, 217-243.

Dawson-Tunik, T. L., Commons, M., Wilson, M., & Fischer, K. W. (2005). The shape of development. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2, 163-195.

Commons, M. L. (2004). The State of the Art on Perry and Epistemological Development? An Introduction

Commons-Miller, L. A. H., & Commons, M. L. (2003). Recognizing Specialized Terminology Presented Through Different Modes

Price, M., Kafka, M., Commons, M. L., Gutheil, T. G., & Simpson, W. (2002). Telephone Scatologia Cormorbidity with Other Paraphilias and Paraphilia-related Disorders

Commons, M. L., & Richards, F. A. (2002). Organizing components into combinations: How stage transition works. Journal of Adult Development. 9(3), 159-177.

Comons, M. L. (1999). Threads Of Adult Development. Adult Developments: The Bulletin of the Society for Research in Adult Development, 8.

Powell, A. (1998). Children need touching and attention. Harvard University Gazette.

Kearney, A. J., Gutheil, T. G., & Commons, M. L. (1996). Trading Forensic and Family Commitments

Richman, A. L., Miller, P. M., & DeVine, R. A. (1992). Cultural and Educational Variations in Maternal Responsiveness

Levine, R. A., & Miller, P.M. (1990). Commentary

Commons, M. L., Armon, C., Richards, F. A. Schrader, D. E. with Farrell, E. W., Tappan, M. B., & Bauer, N. F.  (1989).  A multidomain study of adult development.  Adult Development: Vol. 1, Comparisons and Applications of Adolescent and Adult Developmental Models (pp. 33-56). New York: Praeger.

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Education

Miller, R.(2014). 2014 Trip to Vietnam to Suport Orphaned and Blind Children. Report to Friends of Vietnamese Disadvantaged Children.

Miller, R. (2013). October 2013 Visit to Hai Phong. Report to Friends of Vietnamese Disabled Children.

Kubina, R. M., Commons, M. L., & Heckard, B. (2009). Using precision teaching with direct instruction in a summer school program. Journal of Direct Instruction, 9, 1-12.

Commons, M. L., & Goodman, S. A. (2008). Project Giant Step: Ocean Hill-Brownsville and the New York City School Strike. Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, 24, 38-42.

Commons, M. L., Miller, P. M., & Kuhn, D. (1982). The relation between formal operational reasoning and academic course selection and performance among college freshmen and sophomores. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3, 1-10.

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